3 Different Types of Argument: Definition and Examples

types of argument

Arguments are one of the most important parts of writing. They can be used to persuade, inform, or even entertain an audience. It's one of the oldest and most fundamental parts of human communication.

But what is it, exactly? And how do you go about making an argument that will persuade others?

There are actually three different types of argument, each with its own set of rules: deductive, inductive, and abductive. In this blog post, we'll take a closer look at each type and give some examples to help you understand them better.

Types of Argument

There are three types of arguments that you'll most likely encounter while writing an argumentative essay. These include:

Classical Argument

In the classical or Aristotle's model of argument, we try to convince readers about some point-of-view. It can also be used for any logic or persuasive task you need help with!

This type was developed by a Greek philosopher and rhetorician who lived almost four thousand years ago.

The classical model analyzes both sides of an argument for one side to be proven right. In this, you put forward the idea that you assumed to be true, good, or bad and utilize Ethos (authenticity), Pathos (emotion), and Logos (logic).

The classical model of the argumentative essay takes into account the following things:

  • The main claim or argument is introduced by identifying the topic and summarizing key points.
  • In this argument, the author provides insight into why something is not working and how it can be improved.
  • The other side of the argument is always worth considering, even if it's difficult to understand or believe. Here, you can explain them in detail and refute their claims with evidence from your perspective.
  • Prove your claim with clear evidence and avoid arguing or providing a personal opinion in the argument.
  • Tell your readers that the benefits of accepting your claim are immense.

In the classical model, there are some phases to this process.

  • Introduction - hook statement, brief background, thesis statement
  • Body - topic sentence, facts & evidence to prove the argument
  • Counter argument - opposing arguments, evidence, and reasons to refute the counter arguments
  • Conclusion - restating the thesis statement, call to action, and concluding remarks

Toulmin Argument

Toulmin's argumentation model was developed to analyze a debate and distinguish between strong arguments on either side with no clear truth or absolute solution. Unlike the classical model that only presents one side at once. This argument works well when we have issues where there is not necessarily 'the right answer.’

The components of the argumentative essay are as follows:

  • Claim
  • Grounds
  • Warrant
  • Backing
  • Qualifier
  • Rebuttal

Here is the structure of the Toulmin model:

  • Introduction - main claim or thesis statement
  • Body - facts and evidence to support the argument
  • Conclusion - rebuttal of counter arguments

Rogerian Argument

The Rogerian model of argument is a way to analyze an opinion while finding a middle ground between two parties. This process works on collaboration and cooperation, acknowledging that there can be seen from opposing viewpoints when looking at arguments in depth.

The Rogerian model of argument was developed by Carl R. Rogers. The objectives of the Rogerian model are:

  • To show the reader that you care about what they think and want to make their voice heard.
  • In this model, it's understood that different arguments can be looked at from various standpoints.
  • Show the reader that you share similar moral principles and want to discover a mutually beneficial solution.

Each Rogerian model argumentative essay should contain these objectives.

Here is a structure of the Rogerian model:

  • Introduction - Introduction to the argument, thesis statement
  • Opposing position - An understanding that there is more than one side to any argument.
  • State your claim - Explain your perspective about the argument.
  • Provide a common ground - Link the grounds to the claims of both sides and provide a compromised solution.
  • Conclusion - Conclude an argument by stating the advantages of a compromised solution.

You can follow any of these three types of argumentative essay models to make your type. These will help you structure an effective and persuasive paper that is true to who YOU are as a writer.

There are different types of arguments in any field. Arguments can be deductive and inductive, logical or emotional - but they're all just a matter of opinion!

Steps to Structure an Argumentative Essay

The way you structure your argument is crucial to its effectiveness. Without an effective foundation, any evidence or ideas put forward will be wasted on readers who don't believe in the validity of what they're reading.

There are a few tricks you can use to make your argument more persuasive.

  • Before you write your essay, it's important to choose something controversial and debatable.

When deciding the type of claim you want to make with your essay, there are five major types:

  • Fact: Is the claim true or false?
  • Definition: A real argument meaning
  • Value: Your argument significance
  • Cause and effect: What causes the problem, and what are its effects?
  • Policy: What must be done?
  • The type of argument structure you choose will affect how your essay flows. For example, if it is an inductive or deductive essay, decide which kind suits best. Inductive essays begin with specific facts and evidence to conclude based on these data.
  • Deductive ones start from general principles that can be applied everywhere else to prove certain propositions.
  • Credibility is a key factor in strengthening your argument. Use facts and evidence from credible sources to evaluate your arguments.
  • Create a strong argumentative essay outline.
  • To write an argumentative essay, you need to understand the different types of arguments and how they're developed. Read some argumentative essay examples for inspiration!
  • To begin your essay with an argument or premises, use a thesis statement that sets out specific reasons for writing an essay.
  • Make sure your claim is logical and developed throughout the essay.
  • The conclusion you reach must be directly dependent on the argument model used.

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