Quantitative Research - A Complete Guide With Examples

quantitative research

When it comes to research, quantitative data is king. This type of information is collected through empirical observation and is measured using numbers. It's used to measure variables, test hypotheses, and analyze data.

By its very nature, quantitative research produces results that are more concrete and reliable than qualitative research. However, there are some nuances to consider when conducting this kind of study.

Are you interested in conducting quantitative research but not sure where to start?

In this blog post, we'll provide a complete guide to quantitative research with plenty of examples to help you get started.

So let's get started!

Quantitative Research Definition

What is quantitative research?

Quantitative research is a way of systematically investigating the world by gathering data that can be measured. This type of research can be divided into two categories: informative and expressive.

All these examples are trying to understand their subject matter in an accurate way. This can be done by using methods like online polls and questionnaires, depending on what is needed. The future is always uncertain, but with this knowledge, we can make smart decisions to ensure our success.

The results from this research method are logical and unbiased. The data collection process goes beyond a single population to represent an entire group, making the results more accurate!

What are the tools used in quantitative research?

There are many different ways to collect data. Questionnaires, participants observations, focus groups, and interviews are some of the most common methods.

Quantitative Research Characteristics

Here are some characteristics of quantitative research.

  • Extensive Sample - Using a large sample size, this study represents the people whose findings will most impact.
  • Inclusive Results - The results of this experiment could be applied to a wide population.
  • Closed-ended Questions - Asking research questions is one of the most important aspects when conducting any type or form of survey. Responses should be objective-based and allow respondents to choose between ‘Yes’, 'No', or ‘don't know’ options.
  • Methodical Tools - Methodical tools help you collect more accurate and detailed information. A great way to do this would be through surveys or polls.
  • Previous Research - You should always conduct thorough research and study the results of previous studies before you start your experiment.
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Types of Quantitative Research Methods

‘What are the four types of quantitative research?’

There are four types of quantitative research, and they all hold equal importance to scientists.

When it comes to collecting data, the primary method of doing so is far more common and useful than secondary methods.

This isn't because we're relying on a second source; rather this type allows us access information from respondents themselves!

The quantitative research design types are listed below.

  • 1. Survey Research

    Creating an online survey is a great way for businesses to get customer feedback. These surveys are often interactive, which means they allow open feedback from participants.

    Here are the most common types of surveys listed.

    • Cross-Sectional Survey - This research is conducted on a specific group of people at a certain point in time. The researcher evaluates several things. The selected group of people have similarities in all aspects except the ones chosen by the researcher.

      This kind of research is used for industries like retail, small-scale businesses, and healthcare industries. It helps them understand their customers better.

    • Longitudinal Survey - Longitudinal studies are used to study how people's behavior changes over time. It is a type of study that can observe an individual for a long time before drawing any conclusions. It could take days or months to study the behavior of your subjects over time.
  • 2. Experimental Research

    Scientific research is often done to prove or disprove a theory. This is called ‘true experimentation,’ and it usually involves theories about natural science and social sciences.

  • 3. Causal-comparative Research

    This research is a study that looks at the cause and effect between different things. Researchers use it to see how things change when something else changes. This type of research is also called quasi-experimental research.

  • 4. Correlational Research

    Correlational research is a type of study that looks at the relationship between two things. These entities must have some sort of impact on each other. Different things can be compared to see if there is a connection between them. This can be positive or negative.

    This kind of content analysis involves a lot of math and statistics. You need to collect data using techniques like conducting in-depth interviews.

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Types of Data Collection Methodologies

You need to choose the data collection method that is best for the task after you have determined the research type.

For example, polling and sampling are both ways to gather information. However, they have different accuracy levels, so you need to be careful in choosing which one to use.

Sampling Data Collection Method

There are two types of sampling methods used in quantitative research: probability sampling and non-probability sampling.

  • 1. Probability Sampling

    The data is collected by taking a few people from the general population and creating samples. These samples are chosen at random without any particular selection criteria in mind. In this sampling, there can be many different types of individuals represented within them.

    Probability sampling is further classified as follows.

    • Simple Random Sampling - In this kind of sampling, the participants are randomly chosen. This method is conducted on a large population, so it's more likely that any bias can be avoided. All the parts of society will have an equal chance to contribute their thoughts and opinion.
    • Systematic Sampling - Here, the population is chosen at regular intervals to give a precise portrayal of what’s life for everyone. These sampling rates will be calculated according to your target sample size, ranging between 100 people and 1 million!
    • Cluster Sampling - Cluster sampling is a process of dividing the population into several groups that represent different areas and demographics.
    • Stratified Random Sampling - To ensure that the participants are a true representation of society. This study is done on many different strata and groups.
  • 2. Nonprobability Sampling

    The perfect way to gather data is by using a well-designed study. This type of research makes sure that only specific people get chosen. The criteria for this survey have been set out beforehand in advance, so there are no surprises along the way!

    • Convenience Sampling - The samples of this kind are probably the easiest to get. Samples can be selected by following their lead because there is no formal protocol or guidelines for sampling in place. People who work with these types often have more flexibility than those dealing with other sorts.
    • Judgemental Sampling - The types of samples used in a study will depend on the researcher's skills, experience, and preference.
    • Quota Sampling - Researchers identify the specific elements in a content likely to appeal most and then make those available for everyone. This ensures an equal chance of being selected among all individuals who want it.
    • Consecutive Sampling - In this type of sampling, the researcher chooses one specific group to sample from. They repeat their tests with different populations to get better results on what is happening within each category or population.
    • Snowball Sampling - This kind of sampling is not done on an entire population to get data. It is conducted on a targeted audience or group that's hard for researchers to reach.

Survey and Polls Data Collection Method

Collecting data from a selected group of people is important for any research project. The most popular way to do this would be through surveys and polls. It gives you insight into what's happening within your specific demographic.

Researchers use four different criteria to measure question responses include nominal, interval, ordinal, and ratio scales. These are all important in answering questions!

It is important to use close-ended questions to analyze and rate your survey accurately. You should also respond with rating scales, which will help ensure the data collected has been helpful for analysis.

When it comes to surveying your customers, there are several different methods of research that you can use.

Below is information on how some companies distribute surveys and ask their target audience for the feedback!

  • Social Distribution - You can use social media sites such as Facebook and Twitter to collect more responses for your survey.
  • Email - Email management software is one of the most common ways when you want to distribute your survey.
  • SMS Survey - With SMS surveys, you can collect data more easily than before.
  • Buying the Respondents - This survey distribution method uses respondents' knowledge to collect the most accurate data possible.
  • QR code - Printed on business cards or magazines, a survey can be the perfect way to get feedback from your audience.
  • Embedding the Survey on a Website - You can increase your response rate with the survey by linking it to a website. Customers are more likely to participate in this interactive process and provide you with valuable feedback, which is perfect for collecting!
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Quantitative Research Data Analysis Techniques

The third important aspect of quantitative research is data analysis. When analyzing, it's important that results are relevant and related to your objective.

The following methods can be used for statistical analysis:

  • SWOT Analysis - It is an acronym that stands for Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats. It stands for Strengths, Weakness, Opportunities, and Threat. Businesses use this kind of analysis to evaluate their performance and develop appropriate strategies.
  • Conjoint Analysis - The analysis of this kind helps businesses to identify how customers make difficult purchasing decisions. By using advanced analytics, companies can be more understanding and knowledgeable about their target audience's preferences.
  • Cross-tabulation - A preliminary statistical analysis is an important part of the research process. This helps you understand patterns, trends, and relationships between various factors.
  • Turf Analysis - It stands for Totally Unduplicated Reach and Frequency Analysis. It allows for the collection and analysis of data, responding from a chosen or favored target group.
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Difference between Qualitative and Quantitative Research

Quantitative and qualitative approaches are major types of research. They're mostly used in subjects with detailed research patterns, so what distinguishes them from each other? A comparison between the two is provided below.

Quantitative research is a type of research that is used in detailed research patterns. It uses data to answer specific questions. On the other hand, the qualitative research method uses words and pictures to answer questions about people's feelings and experiences.

Here is a table that shows the difference between quantitative vs. qualitative research and data collection methods in a clear way.

Quantitative Research vs Qualitative Research
Quantitative Research Research Perspective Qualitative Research
Test the hypothesis and analyze research questions and aspects Research Objective Qualitative data analysis look for new ideas
Testing and analyzing Research Method Observation and interpretation of the results
Structured Data Collection Method Unstructured
Uninvolved and the results are all-inclusive Researcher Involvement Involved and the results are detailed in qualitative study
Samples are large, and results are generalized Sampling Samples are small and in their natural setting
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Benefits of Quantitative Research

The benefits of quantitative research are many, and researchers can benefit in ways that they may not have even considered.

Here's a list of some strengths:

  • Straightforward Analysis - With a straightforward analysis, you can easily determine which statistical tests are appropriate. Eliminating any subjectivity in the data collection ensures that your findings will be accurate and easy to interpret.
  • Can Be Tested and Checked - The reliability of quantitative research is due to its careful experimental design. It allows for the replication of tests and results.

    You can reduce bias in your data by making sure that it's more objective and transparent than other types of studies.

  • Prestige - Completing complex data analysis is impressive and valuable because not everyone understands math or statistics.

    Quantitative research has applications in all business areas, from picking stocks to evaluating portfolios. The association between prestige and value can be an incentive for your small businesses.

Researchers use quantitative research methods because they are easy to sample and collect data. Additionally, this type of study design is easily reproducible, meaning your findings can be replicated by other researchers.

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Drawbacks of Quantitative Research

Here are some limitations of quantitative research, a researcher should consider.

  • Difficulty Setting up a Research Model - Creating a research model is often a limitation for quantitative studies.

    This is because errors that are made during the execution or design of the study can invalidate all future results. If these errors are not fixed, the study will be useless.

    When you do research, the accuracy of your results depends on developing a hypothesis. It also depends on setting up the model for collecting data correctly.

    Any errors in setup or bias can invalidate all findings from this experiment.

  • False Emphasis on Numbers - When researchers focus on numbers alone, they can overlook important information. This can limit the success of their research. Researchers need to be aware of this and make sure to explore themes and relationships.
  • Can Be Misleading - People often think that quantitative research is more scientific than qualitative research, which is based on observations.

    However, this isn't always the case! Both kinds of research can have subjective and flawed perspectives, which can bias your results.

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Quantitative Research Examples

The following are some examples of quantitative research to help you understand it better.

Sample Quantitative Research

Sample Quantitative Research

Example of Quantitative Research for Students

Example of Quantitative Research for Students

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